Controllers & MVC

The Controllers module adds a thin layer that allows to serve content from controller classes. Combined with the Website framework and a renderer of your choice, this allows to implement MVC-style web applications. Nevertheless, controllers can be used to generate any content, so the functionality is not limited to generate pages for websites.

NOTE New MVC websites can quickly be created by using a project template.

In comparison to ASP.NET Core MVC, the implementation tries to use less conventions and hidden logic, keeping the learning curve rather low.

Creating a MVC Website

The following snippet shows a basic example on how to implement a MVC style web application using the controller module. This example shows how to render and modify data records.

// Model
    public record Book(int ID, string Title);
    // Controller
    public class BookController
        private static readonly List<Book> _Books = new()
            new Book(1, "Lord of The Rings")
        public IHandlerBuilder Index()
            return ModScriban.Page<ViewModel<List<Book>>>(Resource.FromAssembly("BookList.html"), (r, h) => new(new ViewModel<List<Book>>(r, h, _Books)))
                             .Title("Book List");
        public IHandlerBuilder Create()
            return ModScriban.Page(Resource.FromAssembly("BookCreation.html"))
                             .Title("Add Book");
        public IHandlerBuilder Create(string title)
            var book = new Book(_Books.Max(b => b.ID) + 1, title);
            return Redirect.To("{index}/", true);
        public IHandlerBuilder Edit([FromPath] int id)
            var book = _Books.Where(b => b.ID == id).First();
            return ModScriban.Page<ViewModel<Book>>(Resource.FromAssembly("BookEditor.html"), (r, h) => new(new ViewModel<Book>(r, h, book)))
        public IHandlerBuilder Edit([FromPath] int id, string title)
            var book = _Books.Where(b => b.ID == id).First();
            var index = _Books.IndexOf(book);
            _Books[index] = book with { Title = title };
            return Redirect.To("{index}/", true);
        public IHandlerBuilder Delete([FromPath] int id)
            _Books.RemoveAll(b => b.ID == id);
            return Redirect.To("{index}/", true);
    // Website setup
    static int Main(string[] args)
        var app = Layout.Create()
                        .Index(Page.From("Welcome to the Book Manager!").Title("Home"));
        var theme = Theme.Create()
                         .Title("Book Manager");
        var website = Website.Create()
        return Host.Create()

The example is available as a downloadable sample project as well.

You might notice that compared to ASP.NET Core MVC, the code is quite verbose (e.g. the Scriban stuff instead of just View), but you can also see what is actually executed, making it easier to understand. A larger application would probably derive some BaseController with a method like the following:

protected IHandlerBuilder View<T>(string name, string title, T data) {
        return ModScriban.Page<ViewModel<T>>(Resource.FromAssembly($"{name}.html"), (r, h) => new(new ViewModel<T>(r, h, data)))

Content Discovery

When you run the sample project, you will notice, that there is an automatically generated menu that has been derived from our controller class:

automatically generated menu

This is possible because the controller handler (as any other handler of the GenHTTP framework) declares the content elements it provides as meta information. From this information the sitemap (http://localhost:8080/sitemap.xml is generated as well).

If you do not want a page to show up in the sitemap or menu, you can mark it hidden:

[ControllerAction(RequestMethod.GET, IgnoreContent = true)]
    public IHandlerBuilder Create() { /* ... */ }

For dynamic content (such as the books in our example), you can specify an IContentHint implementation which makes the content discoverable to the framework:

[ControllerAction(RequestMethod.GET, ContentHints = typeof(BookContentHints))]
    public IHandlerBuilder Edit([FromPath] int id) { /* ... */ }
    public class BookContentHints : IContentHints
        public List<ContentHint> GetHints(IRequest request)
            var result = new List<ContentHint>();
            foreach (var book in BookController.Books)
                result.Add(new ContentHint() { { "id", book.ID } });
            return result;

URL Patterns

As with ASP.NET Core MVC, the endpoints of your controller methods will automatically be derived by analyzing your class. The following table shows the rules that are applied to map an URL:

Method Endpoint
Index() /controller/
Action() /controller/action/
Action([FromPath] int id) /controller/action/:id/
Action(int id) /controller/action/?id=:id
LongAction() /controller/long-action/

Advanced Method Definitions

As with the webservice module, the controller allows to inject additional objects from the request context such as the IRequest, the IHandler or the Stream read from the request body. The result of your method can be void, IResponse, IResponseBuilder, IHandler or IHandlerBuilder (either async or not).

As your methods are allowed to return any IHandlerBuilder, you can also return more complex types like a Layout, ReverseProxy or a DirectoryListing. Content discovery and routing will work in this case as well.

Further Resources

The following capabilities are shared by various application frameworks: